Coffee was introduced to England
…there is not a single soul who on quitting the house does not believe himself four times wittier than when he entered it (Montesquieu: Persian Letters, Letter XXXVI).
Abstract Coffee was introduced to England by Pasqua and Jacob, the two Ottoman citizens. After the introduction of coffee and establishment of coffee-houses in London and Oxford, the public gave a social meaning and metaphysical significance to the Turkish beverage. The assumed social meaning of coffee went far beyond the simple brew in the cup. It was first considered as ugly, black, and evil beverage; and a Turkish enchantment that spoils pure Christian spirit. But in a process of time the coffee and coffee-houses were negotiated by the public, and coffee-houses became a center for intellectual discussion. They served for a long time to enlighten British citizens.