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A brief history of coffee

14 Nov 20
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600 Coffee makes its migration from Ethiopia to Arabia
1000 The philosopher Avicenna first describes the medicinal qualities of coffee, which he refers to as bunchum
c.1300 Islamic monks brew qawha, a brew of hot water and roasted coffee beans
1470-1500 Coffee use spreads to Mecca and Medina
1517 Sultan Selim I introduces coffee to Constantinople after conquering Egypt
1554 Constantinople’s first coffee houses open
1570-1580 Coffee houses in Constantinople ordered closed by religious authorities
1600 Baba Budan, a Moslem pilgrim, introduces coffee to southern India
1616 Coffee is brought from Mocha to Holland
1645 The first coffee house opens in Venice
1650 The first coffee house opens in England (at Oxford)
1658 The Dutch begin cultivating coffee in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1668 Coffee is introduced to North America
1669 Coffee catches on in Paris when a Turkish ambassador spend a year at the court of Louis XIV
1670 Coffee is introduced to Germany
1674 The Women’s Petition Against Coffee is introduced in London
1675 King Charles II orders all London coffee houses closed, calling them places of sedition
1679 Marseilles’ physicians try to discredit coffee, claiming it is harmful to health
The first coffee house in Germany opens in Hamburg
1689 The first enduring Parisian cafe, Cafe de Procope, opens
1696 The King’s Arms, New York’s first coffee house, opens
1706 The first samples of coffee grown in Java are brought back to Amsterdam
1714 A coffee plant, raised from a seed of the Java samples, is presented by the Dutch to Louis XIV and maintained in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris
1720 The still-enduring Caffe Florian opens in Florence
1723 Gabriel de Clieu brings a coffee seedling from France to Martinique
1727 Francisco de Mello Palheta brings seeds and plants from French Guiana to Brazil
1730 The English bring coffee cultivation to Brazil
1732 Bach composes The Coffee Cantata, parodying the German panaroia over coffee’s growing popularity
1777 Prussia’s Frederick the Great issues a manifesto denouncing coffee in favour of the national drink, beer
1809 The first coffee imported from Brazil arrives in Salem, Mass.
1869 Coffee leaf rust appears in Ceylon. Within 10 years the disease destroys most of the plantations in India, Ceylon and other parts of Asia
1873 The first successful national brand of packaged roast ground coffee, Ariosa, is marketed by John Arbuckle
1882 The New York Coffee Exchange commences business
1904 The modern espresso machine is invented by Fernando Illy
1906 Brazil withholds some coffee from the market in an attempt to boost global prices
1910 German decaffeinated coffee is introduced to the U.S. by Merck & Co., under the name Dekafa
1911 American coffee roasters organize into a national association, the precursor to the National Coffee Association
1928 The Colomian Coffee Federation is established
1938 Nestle technicians in Brazil invent Nescafe, the first commercially successful instant coffee
1941-1945 U.S. troops bring instant coffee to a global audience
1959 Juan Valdez becomes the face of Colombian coffee
1962 Peak in American per-capita coffee consumption — more than three cups a day
1964 First Tim Horton’s opens in Hamilton, Ont.
1971 First Starbucks opens in Seatlle
1973 First fair-trade coffee is imported to Europe from Guatemala
1975 Global coffee prices rise dramatically after Brazil suffers a severe frost
Second Cup makes its debut in Canada
1989 International Coffee Agreement collapses as world prices drop to an historic low
early 1990s Specialty coffee catches on in the U.S.
mid 1990s Organic coffee becomes the fastest growing segment of the specialty coffee industry
1997 Tim Horton’s introduces first specialty coffees, English Toffee and french Vanilla flavoured cappuccinos
1998 Starbucks approaches 2,000 U.S. outlets, with as many planned for Asia and Europe
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