Monthly Archives:June 2018

All About Filter Coffee

18 Jun 18
PashaCoffee

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Filter Coffee: coffee made by filtering hot water through dark roasted and rough ground beans. The resulting brew is allowed to rest before serving. The paper filter stops the coffee grounds from getting into the brewed coffee.

The simplest filter coffeemaker is the domestic coffeemaker.

It consists of a glass jug and a plastic filter cone placed above it.

Preheat the glass jug with a small amount of hot water.

Place the paper filter in the cone.

Place the correct amount of coffee in the filter. 55-60 grams is the correct measurement for 1 litre of water.

Lightly shake the cone to evenly distribute the coffee.

Boil some water in a kettle (92-96 degrees) and leave to cool for 10-15 seconds. Then, pour in just enough hot water to wet the coffee in the filter.

After a few seconds, pour the remaining water over the coffee.

Within a few minutes, the coffee will have dripped into the glass jug at which time it is ready to be drunk.

Use hot water or the steam nozzle of an espresso machine to preheat the cylindrical glass jug.

Place the ground coffee in the bottom of the jug. One cup of coffee (150 ml of water) requires 5-6 grams (about one tablespoon) of filter coffee. Use 55 grams of coffee per litre of water.

Pour hot water over the coffee.

Place the plunger over the lid of the jug and allow the coffee to steep for 3-5 minutes.

Before drinking the coffee, slowly push down the plunger. This process separates the grounds from the coffee infusion.

Make sure to follow the instruction in the coffeemaker’s manual.

Electric filter coffeemakers work on the same principle as the drip method. The first step is to fill the water reservoir with cold water.

If the machine does not have its own filter, place a paper filter in the filter cone.

Place the desired amount of coffee in the filter. The correct measure is 55 grams of coffee per litre of water, so 5-6 grams (about one tablespoon) of coffee makes one cup of coffee. Try a number of variations in order to discover the amount of coffee needed to create your desired strength.

Lightly shake the cone to evenly distribute the coffee.

When the machine is switched on, it heats the water to the desired temperature and begins to drip water into the filter cone.

The vertical gauge on the coffeemaker’s water reservoir shows the water level and its equivalent cup measurement.

The hot plate under the glass jug keeps the coffee warm as long as the coffeemaker is left switched on.

Filter coffee should be consumed within 20 minutes.

The filter should be emptied after every use. Never re-use the coffee grounds.

These types of filter coffeemakers are mainly used in medium to large businesses such as cafes, restaurants and hotels.

Professional filter coffeemakers function exactly the same way as domestic filter coffeemakers.

Make sure to follow the instructions in the coffeemaker’s manual.

Large, commercial filter coffeemakers also have hot plates that keep the coffee warm and ready to be served.

Filter coffee should be consumed within 20 minutes.

Espresso coffee: coffee made by forcing hot water under pressure through finely ground, dark roasted coffee. Espresso is thicker and stronger than filter coffee. A good cup of espresso features a layer of natural froth known as the “crema”. Sugar can be added to espresso after it has been served.

Fill the lower chamber with cold water.

Place the ground espresso coffee in the middle filter chamber.

Make sure that the filter chamber is filled to the rim with ground coffee.

Lightly tamp down the coffee in the filter.

Brush off any coffee that has spilled over and place the filter chamber on top of the water chamber.

Tightly screw on the top chamber and place the coffeepot on the stove over a low heat.

As the water boils, the steam forces the water up through the filter and then up through a central tube into the top chamber where it brews.

When the sound of boiling stops, the top compartment has filled with coffee.

Take the coffeepot off the stove. Allow to rest for a few moments and then serve.

These are generally used by hotels, restaurants and cafes.

The espresso machine operator or “barista” places roasted coffee beans in a special grinder that has a dosage system. Some machines are equipped with their own internal grinder.

Cold water is placed in the water reservoir.

7 grams of finely ground coffee are used to make one cup of espresso.

The ground coffee is placed in a portafilter, the cupped handle on an espresso machine that holds the coffee during the brewing process

The coffee is tamped with a special tamper that compresses the coffee.

The tamped coffee is placed into the group head, through which a pressurised stream of hot water flows.

A cup is placed under the portafilter spout. When turned on, the machine begins to brew the espresso.

When the cup is 2/3 full (40 ml), the process is stopped.

Steam foamed milk is added to espresso and lightly sprinkled with cacao or flakes of chocolate.

To make cappuccino, 2-3 tablespoons of foam are first spooned onto the espresso.

Holding the rest of the foam back with a spoon, the hot milk is slowly poured through the foam into the coffee.

To clean the spout and check whether the steam is ready, rapidly turn the steam spout on and off.

Pour the milk into a half-litre stainless steel jug. To make cappuccino, use 125 ml of cold milk. Use 250 ml for latte.

As the best froth is achieved using cold milk, the frothed milk is prepared first.

Place the steam spout 1-2 cm into the milk and slowly tilt the jug forward.

Turn on the steam spout. The milk will begin to froth.

As the foam rises, raise the spout so that the tip is always just below the surface of the milk.

Steam the milk until it reaches 2-3 times its original height.

A good, soft froth should be achieved.

After making the froth, heat the milk by lowering the steam spout almost until it touches the bottom of the steel jug.

In 5-10 seconds, when the bottom of the jug warms up, turn off the steam spout.

After frothing the milk, clean the steam spout by rapidly turning it on and off. If necessary, wipe the spout with a clean cloth. Be careful, as the steam spout will be very hot.

A good foam should cling to the back of a spoon.

Espresso crema should range in colour from light brown to cacao-coloured, occasionally with dark brown veins.

The foam should be 3-4 mm high and long lasting.

It should be strong, aromatic, full-bodied and delicious with a slightly sweet scent.

It should have a long lasting flavour

Tips for a making a full-bodied, delicious cup of espresso:

Use 6.5-7 g of coffee.

Set the machine’s pump to 9-10 atmospheres.

Set the water temperature to 90 degrees on the pressure regulator.

Make sure that the espresso cup is filled 2/3 full within 25-30 seconds.

Weak espresso has a thin layer of foam that is light in colour, has large bubbles and is quick to disperse.

The espresso tastes weak, has no aroma and is bland.

Reasons why espresso can taste weak:

Did you use less than 6 g of ground coffee?

Did you use rough ground coffee?

Did you use lightly tamped coffee or coffee that was not tamped at all?

If the coffee was poured into the cup in 20 seconds or less, the coffee may have been rough ground and may not have been tamped.

Was the water temperature below 88 degrees?

Was the pump pressure less than 9 atmospheres?

When was the packet opened?

Was the container stored at room temperature?

If you used roasted coffee beans, were the blades of the grinder dull?

Was the right setting selected on the grinder?

If you used a grinder that automatically adjusts the dosage, was the correct dose selected and was the amount of coffee ground always between 6-7 g?

Was the machine cleaned following the instructions in the manual?

Was the filter the right size for the number of cups?

Strong espresso has dark brown layer of foam with white dots or a black hole in the centre.

The thin layer of foam tends to drift towards the rim and to form a black circle.

The espresso has a strong taste, is bitter and has no aroma.

Reasons why your espresso may taste too strong:

Did you use more than 7 g of ground coffee?

Was your coffee very finely ground?

Did you over tamp the coffee?

If the coffee was poured into the cup in 35 seconds or more, the coffee may have been over ground or over tamped.

Was the water temperature over 88 degrees?

Was the pump pressure greater than 10 atmospheres?

If you used roasted coffee beans, were the blades of the grinder dull?

Was the right setting selected on the grinder?

If you used a grinder that automatically adjusts the dosage, was the correct dose selected and was the amount of coffee ground always between 6-7 g?

Was the machine cleaned following the instructions in the manual?

Was the filter the right size for the number of cups?

Coffee in Turkish Culture

18 Jun 18
PashaCoffee

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There is a Turkish proverb that says, “A single cup of coffee is remembered for fourty years”. In the Turkish culture, coffee is always offered at the start of any visit. No true conversations begin until kahve is served. The discussions and the brew are remembered together. No wonder that Turkish coffee is unforgettable.

There is no ritual more important in any culture than marriage. It is a way to improve ones standing and situation in society after all. Every prospective bride is tested by the way she makes coffee. Some brides are known to have substituted salt for the sugar in order to avoid an unwanted marriage.

It was also considered an insult to spill the coffee, even just a little on to the saucer so a reluctant bride would sometimes find a way to spill coffee, not just on the saucer but on the guests. That usually ended the marriage talks.

The foam on Turkish coffee is very important. It is made as the brew sits on the stove without being stirred. A few people will tell you that it is okay to stir after the first two boiling, in fact some will say it is a must but never is it stirred once it is placed on the heat for the last time. In fact, it is said that the host who serves coffee with no foam loses face.

For those of us who’ve always wanted our future read with coffee, Turkish coffee is the brew you must try. It is the remains from this brew or fal that is used to read ones possible fututre or destiny. In fact it is still a favorite pastime in Turkey today, especially among the women.

Make yourself a cup of Turkish coffee or go find a place that makes good Turkish coffee. Enjoy the experience for yourself. Don’t forget to check if there’s someone around who can read fal.

Starbucks Versus Coffee House

15 Jun 18
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It starts like a fairy tale. Once, there was a girl. She was staying in New York for some time, which she considered a great privilege. One day it was raining cats and dogs, so the girl was looking for a shelter. It took her a long time to find one, but then she saw the sign “Starbucks”. Well, this girl was me. On that day I was looking for a shelter as well as a cozy place to relax – in other words, I was searching for a typical coffee house like the ones I frequently go to when I am in Vienna.

The myth of the coffee house is very typical of Vienna – in this town you associate coffee houses with coziness, people reading newspapers and waiters who look like remnants of the time when Austria was still a monarchy. If you go to one of the many coffee houses in Vienna, you truly feel as if you have stepped back in time: You are surrounded by red plush, very high windows and breathtaking chandeliers. You can spend hours at this place, reading different types of newspapers and relishing one of nearly 20 different types of coffee. You may order “Gebaeck” (which means pastry) – for example the Wiener Kipferl (a Viennese version of the French croissant), the “Kaisersemmerl” (emperor roll) or even the Wiener Sachertorte (a kind of chocolate cake usually served with whipped cream) – the recipe is, like that of Coca-Cola, a well-kept national secret. Anyway, tasting these specialities, you feel like in heaven.

So far the myth. Do these traditions still exist? Is it still possible to meet a waiter who politely opens the door for you and casts a spell on women’s hearts by kissing their hands? Of course waiters in tailcoats still exist, but only for the countless tourists. Starbucks is in many ways different from the typical Viennese coffee house, but this is not always negative. At Starbucks in New York you can find people from all classes, a well-paid manager as well as a poor homeless woman. The clientele is nearly the same in Vienna (apart from the homeless woman – you won’t find her in an Austrian coffee house). There is one question I always ask myself: Why does the waiter treat the old man much better than me and my colleagues from university? Do we look like bilkers? Well, Maybe so, because the old man is served immediately, while we only get a very disparaging glance from the waiter. You can see it in his expression that he would rather be at home, sitting in front of the TV and drinking beer than serving people.

Another sacrilege comes to mind: I remember sitting next to a man at Starbucks who was having a very loud conversation with his girlfriend. In Viennese coffee houses it is considered impolite to speak in a loud voice. If a group of people have some fun and burst out laughing, it could very well happen that some people look at you indignantly, others may shake their heads and it might also happen that the waiter rather rudely admonishes you or even asks you to leave. Loud laughter apparently disturbs the holy silence reigning in the Viennese Coffee house. The relaxed atmosphere, the coziness which is often mentioned in connection with Viennese coffee houses, has given way to hurry and everyday stress. Today people rarely take the time to go to a coffee house. If they go, the coffee and the cake has to be served within 3 minutes, otherwise something else comes in between – the typically Viennese Grant (grief, anger). And so they are assembled – the angry waiter and the angry customer, feeling aggrieved, hurt and disappointed.

If you take a close look at the reason why people go to coffee houses, you can find another typical trait of Viennese people. Guests are not invited to one’s own apartment, but taken to the coffee house. That’s the only way to avoid guests getting an insight into one’s private life and to prevent them from criticizing and gossiping about one’s pictures, furniture, etc. People don’t like showing the things they have obtained through hard work. That’s the way the Viennese seem to think.

The phenomenon of “sitting in a coffee house and reading a newspaper for hours”, isn’t entirely accurate either. The paying customer is disturbed every 10 minutes by a rather impolite “Would you like another coffee” or “another Sachertorte for you?” while reading the newspaper. And if we are honest, our coffee houses are slowly becoming “Americanized”. Beautiful old coffee houses very often have to give way to new stand-up coffee places.

So I am sitting in rainy New York and ruminatimg on the good old coffee houses in Vienna. And while the rain is beating down on the windows of Starbucks and all the people outside are running by under their umbrellas, I say to myself: “You can criticise the myth of the Viennese coffee houses, but we all love to go there. Perhaps it’s because of the strange atmosphere you find there”. I take the first sip from my coffee and think:

“Besides, our coffee is much better” – but this could of course be plain patriotism, another typical characteristic of a typical Austrian. I say goodbye and go outside into the rain. A paper cup with tasteless odd coffee stays behind.

THE LEGEND OF COFFEE

There are many stories about the creation of the Viennese coffee house, in which historical material is mixed with legend. Georg Franz Kolschitzky plays an important role: a long time ago he was mentioned as the first the person who opened a coffee house in Vienna. He lived in Vienna in 1683, the time of the Turkish siege. It is reported that he and his servant could escape through the siege to hand letters from the prisoners over to the Duke of Lothringen. The duke promised to set the prisoners free by sending 70.000 soldiers to their aud, and that is how the prisoners returned to Vienna. As a reward for his courage, Kolschitzky was given some of the bags of coffee beans found in the Turkish camp. The first coffee house was founded with these bags of coffee beans – so the story goes. But in reality, in 1668 merchants were already trading coffee, so it must have been introduced to Vienna 15 years before the siege by the Turks’. The first owner of a coffee house is said to have been of Greek origin.

The importance of the coffee houses in the 17th and the 18th century:

The first coffee houses were founded in the 17th century. Their development went along with another innovation – at the beginning of the 18th century the first periodical newspapers were created (for example the “Posttaegliche Mercurius”, “Corriere Ordinario”, “Wienerische Diarium” – the last one was renamed into “Wiener Zeitung” and is today the oldest newspaper in the world). These newspapers appeared twice a week, one could either have a subscription or read it in a coffee house. Reading the newspapers was not allowed on Sundays, so that coffee houses were closed. From that moment on, the coffee house has been a place for the privileged. It was the only place where people onefreedom, the “freedom of the coffee houses”. It was the only place where you could even criticize the rule of the Austrian emperor. One could find uncensored, so called “Wrong Newspapers”.. In the coffee house “Kramer” on the first floor one could meet ordinary people, while in the cellar, in the “CAVE” people were allowed to discuss forbidden political topics. The first literary coffee houses were called into being in a time of censorship when people were controlled everywhere in Austria. The coffee houses were the only places where people could enjoy limited freedom of speech, especially where politics were concerned.

Small coffee house guide

CAFE GRIENSTEIDL

opened in 1847, meeting point of literary men such as Hermann Bar, Arthur Schnitzler, Karl Krauss, Hugo von Hofmannsthal or composers such as Hugo Wolf or Arnold Schoenberg; birth place of Viennese literature. People could live out their notions of decadence; pulled down in 1897; reopened in 1990, the old atmosphere has been replaced by a modernised version.

CAFE CENTRAL

After the closing down of Griensteidl the favourite haunt of artists (Loos, Friedel, Alfred Polgar, Karl Kraus, Altenberger); place for philosophic and literary discussion, now pretty different – high costs for renovation, but the arched room where many artists had “their tables” isn’t accessible to the public. nowadays it is frequented by tourists, bank employees, shop assistants, …

BRAEUNERHOF

Hidden between old antique shops, it reminds one of the 17/18th centuries, the same furniture, a little bit dusty and antiquated walls, the waiters are still relics of the past centuries, there are a lot of newspapers, including foreign ones (for example The Herald Tribune, The Guardian, The Times, …)

HAWELKA

In the early 1950ies, meeting point of many intellectual painters, HC Artmann, Konrad Bayer,… all spent their nights at Hawelka, the furniture is still very old, the plush is scabby, posters on the walls.

LANDTMANN

Expensive, renovated in 1980, a typical “Ringstrassencafe”, very artistic wood panelling, guests have their own niche, very high backrests, small adjoining rooms where press conferences are held, regular customers were: Julius Raab, Paul Hoerbiger, Oskar Werner, Max Reinhardt, Oskar Kokoschka, …

FRAUENHUBER

The oldest coffee house, Mozart and Beethoven gave concerts here, very quiet place with carpets on the floor, it’s like a living room with glass cupboards for the china, and of course all the furniture is covered with plush…

A brief history of coffee

12 Jun 18
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600 Coffee makes its migration from Ethiopia to Arabia
1000 The philosopher Avicenna first describes the medicinal qualities of coffee, which he refers to as bunchum
c.1300 Islamic monks brew qawha, a brew of hot water and roasted coffee beans
1470-1500 Coffee use spreads to Mecca and Medina
1517 Sultan Selim I introduces coffee to Constantinople after conquering Egypt
1554 Constantinople’s first coffee houses open
1570-1580 Coffee houses in Constantinople ordered closed by religious authorities
1600 Baba Budan, a Moslem pilgrim, introduces coffee to southern India
1616 Coffee is brought from Mocha to Holland
1645 The first coffee house opens in Venice
1650 The first coffee house opens in England (at Oxford)
1658 The Dutch begin cultivating coffee in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1668 Coffee is introduced to North America
1669 Coffee catches on in Paris when a Turkish ambassador spend a year at the court of Louis XIV
1670 Coffee is introduced to Germany
1674 The Women’s Petition Against Coffee is introduced in London
1675 King Charles II orders all London coffee houses closed, calling them places of sedition
1679 Marseilles’ physicians try to discredit coffee, claiming it is harmful to health
The first coffee house in Germany opens in Hamburg
1689 The first enduring Parisian cafe, Cafe de Procope, opens
1696 The King’s Arms, New York’s first coffee house, opens
1706 The first samples of coffee grown in Java are brought back to Amsterdam
1714 A coffee plant, raised from a seed of the Java samples, is presented by the Dutch to Louis XIV and maintained in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris
1720 The still-enduring Caffe Florian opens in Florence
1723 Gabriel de Clieu brings a coffee seedling from France to Martinique
1727 Francisco de Mello Palheta brings seeds and plants from French Guiana to Brazil
1730 The English bring coffee cultivation to Brazil
1732 Bach composes The Coffee Cantata, parodying the German panaroia over coffee’s growing popularity
1777 Prussia’s Frederick the Great issues a manifesto denouncing coffee in favour of the national drink, beer
1809 The first coffee imported from Brazil arrives in Salem, Mass.
1869 Coffee leaf rust appears in Ceylon. Within 10 years the disease destroys most of the plantations in India, Ceylon and other parts of Asia
1873 The first successful national brand of packaged roast ground coffee, Ariosa, is marketed by John Arbuckle
1882 The New York Coffee Exchange commences business
1904 The modern espresso machine is invented by Fernando Illy
1906 Brazil withholds some coffee from the market in an attempt to boost global prices
1910 German decaffeinated coffee is introduced to the U.S. by Merck & Co., under the name Dekafa
1911 American coffee roasters organize into a national association, the precursor to the National Coffee Association
1928 The Colomian Coffee Federation is established
1938 Nestle technicians in Brazil invent Nescafe, the first commercially successful instant coffee
1941-1945 U.S. troops bring instant coffee to a global audience
1959 Juan Valdez becomes the face of Colombian coffee
1962 Peak in American per-capita coffee consumption — more than three cups a day
1964 First Tim Horton’s opens in Hamilton, Ont.
1971 First Starbucks opens in Seatlle
1973 First fair-trade coffee is imported to Europe from Guatemala
1975 Global coffee prices rise dramatically after Brazil suffers a severe frost
Second Cup makes its debut in Canada
1989 International Coffee Agreement collapses as world prices drop to an historic low
early 1990s Specialty coffee catches on in the U.S.
mid 1990s Organic coffee becomes the fastest growing segment of the specialty coffee industry
1997 Tim Horton’s introduces first specialty coffees, English Toffee and french Vanilla flavoured cappuccinos
1998 Starbucks approaches 2,000 U.S. outlets, with as many planned for Asia and Europe

CBC.ca